Urine, whether human or animal, has three main components:
- A slightly sticky substance called urea
- The agent that gives urine its yellow color, called urochrome
- A nitrogen-rich, mildly acidic substance call uric acid
Ordinary cleaning solutions and commercially-available urine odor control products are effective when used to wash away the first two substances quite effectively. However, the biggest problem arises from the crystals formed by substance number three uric acid. Uric acid forms crystals that are highly insoluble and that bind securely to surfaces. Cleaning and drying urine-affected areas with ordinary products may give the initial appearance that the urine problem is solved. However, contact with the affected area by any type of moisture will reactivate the uric acid crystals and the odor will recur, as strong as ever.